Social and Economic Determinants of Health

The critical factors that combine to affect the health of individuals and communities are diverse and complex. As well as personal health, our wellbeing is influenced by where we live, the state of our environment, our income, education levels, relationships with family and friends, and our relationship to our communities.

This profile compares Wyndham City to areas across Greater Melbourne and Victoria on key social and economic factors that impact residents’ health, wellbeing and security. While in recent years improvements have been seen in university education rates and employment, Wyndham still falls short on a number of other social and economic factors compared to neighbouring local government areas and the Greater Melbourne region.

All data refers to people aged 15+ years unless otherwise stated.

Image of Worker

High School and University Education

Between 2011 and 2016 there were increases in the number of residents who had completed Year 12 (8%) as well as the proportion of residents with a degree or higher (5%).

High Schools and University Education, 2011 and 2016
High school and university education, Wyndham 2011 and 20161

Higher Education

As shown in the graph below, 17.1% of Wyndham residents 15 years old and over held Certificate-level qualifications in 2016, which was higher than adults across Greater Melbourne (15.3%) and Victoria (16.9%). A smaller proportion of Wyndham residents 15 years old and over (15.5%) had attained a bachelor degree compared to residents in Greater Melbourne (18.5%). However, compared to Greater Melbourne (6.4%) and Victoria (5.4%), Wyndham had the highest proportion of residents over 15 who have achieved a post graduate level qualification (7.2%).

Highest Level of Education, 15 years+, 2016
15 years+ highest level of education, Wyndham, Greater Melbourne and Victoria 20162

Unemployment3,4

In the most recent quarter (December 2020), the unemployment rate in Wyndham was 8.3%, which is higher than the unemployment rate in Australia (6.3%) and Victoria (6.6%). All three geographic levels have experienced a marked increase in unemployment during the first COVID-19 lockdown. 

Apart from adding to economic insecurity, unemployment often has negative health and wellbeing consequences related to stress and dissatisfaction.

Unemployment rate, Wyndham, Victoria and Australia, December quarter 2016-2020
Unemployment rate, Wyndham, Victoria and Australia, December quarter 2016-2020
Employment Image

Employment Industries5

In 2018, health care and social assistance was the most common industry of employment for Wyndham compare to Greater Melbourne retail trade workers 15 years of age and older. Wyndham retails was the second with 10.7%, whilst Greater Melbourne is the first with 14%. Transport, Postal and Warehousing industry jobs were in the top five most common sectors of employment across Greater Melbourne, however did not make the top five in Wyndham. Instead, manufacturing industry were more common amongst Wyndham workers.

 

Industries of employment, 15+ years, Wyndham and Greater Melbourne 2018
Industries of Employment, 15+ Years, 2018

As shown in the graph below, the median house price in Wyndham has been consistently lower than across Greater Melbourne and Victoria over the last 6 years.

Between 2011 and 2013, house prices across the state declined before increasing consistently from 2013 to 2017. In 2017, the median house price in Wyndham was around $525,000, almost $200,000 below the Greater Melbourne median, and nearly $70,000 less than the Victorian average.

Provisional data for 2018 indicates that the median house price in Wyndham is around $570,000. Unlike Victoria and Greater Melbourne, house prices in Wyndham have increased between 2017 and 2018.

8Median House Price, 2014 to 2016
Median house price, Wyndham, Greater Melbourne and Victoria 2014 to 20186

As shown in the graph below, Williams Landing had the highest weekly household income in Wyndham in 2016 ($2,220). Median weekly household income in Little River - Rural West, Truganina, Tarneit, Point Cook and Williams Landing-Laverton North was higher than the Wyndham median. In contrast, Hoppers Crossing, Werribee South-Cocoroc, and Werribee had median weekly household incomes below the Wyndham and Greater Melbourne median.

Median Household Income by LGA, 2016
Median weekly household income by Wyndham Suburb, 20167

 

The graph below shows the median weekly household income in 2016 for residents of Wyndham, Greater Melbourne and Victoria. The median weekly household income in Wyndham is greater than the Victorian median by over $200 per week. In 2016, Wyndham’s median weekly household income was $1,620, compared to $1,542 across Greater Melbourne and $1,419 in Victoria.

Median Household Income, Wyndham, Greater Melb, Victoria, 2016
Median weekly household income, Wyndham, Greater Melbourne and Victoria 20168

Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) is an Australian Bureau of Statistics product that ranks areas in Australia according to socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. These rankings are based on information from the five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. There are four indexes. One is named the Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD) and identifies and ranks areas relative to each other in terms of their socio-economic disadvantage.

As shown in the graph below, the Wyndham 2016 SEIFA IRSD score of 1009 is lower than the Victorian and Greater Melbourne scores (1010 and 1021 respectively) but higher than the Australian score (1003). Wyndham is slightly more disadvantaged compared to Victoria and Greater Melbourne, and less disadvantaged compared to Australia. Wyndham is less disadvantaged than the Western Region, where the SEIFA score is 990. 

SEIFA - IRSD, 2016
Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (SEIFA – IRSD) for select areas, 20169

 

The table below lists the SEIFA IRSD score for Wyndham suburbs. In 2016, Werribee had the lowest SEIFA score of all suburbs in Wyndham (949), making it the most disadvantaged suburb across the municipality. Point Cook had the highest SEIFA, and is the least disadvantaged suburb in Wyndham.

 

Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (SEIFA – IRSD) for Wyndham suburbs, 201610
SEIFA - IRSD by LGA, 2016

The heat maps below shows which areas within Wyndham are more disadvantaged relative to others according to the 2016 SEIFA IRSD. The areas shaded lighter red depict a relatively lower level of disadvantage than the areas shaded in darker red. 

 

Heat map of SEIFA IRSD, 2016, Wyndham
Heat map of Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (SEIFA – IRSD) for Wyndham, 201611

More and more services are becoming available online and internet access is increasingly regarded as essential to managing health and wellbeing, accessing education and services, organising finances, and connecting with friends, family, and the world beyond.12

The Australian Digital Inclusion Index (ADII) measures three dimensions of digital inclusion: access, affordability, and digital ability. Scores are allocated to geographic regions, including the West which encompasses Wyndham and surrounding local government areas. Higher scores mean greater digital inclusion.

As shown in the graph below, the West’s overall digital inclusion score was 63.6 for the year ending March 2019. This was behind only the Inner City (67.5) and Central (66.8) regions and was higher than the Victorian (63.3) and Australian (61.9) averages.

Digital Inclusion Scores for the year ending March 2019
Digital inclusion scores for the year ending March 201913

Ability to speak multiple languages is a highly regarded skill for employment purposes. As shown in the graph below, over a third of Wyndham residents (35.3%) are able to speak English well or very well in addition to another language. The majority of the population of Wyndham and Greater Melbourne however, only speak English (53.1% and 62.0% respectively). The large proportions of multi-lingual speakers in Wyndham highlights the multicultural profile of the area.

English Proficiency, 2016
English proficiency, Wyndham and Greater Melbourne 201614
Image of Coffee Drinkers