Migration to and from Wyndham
Migration is the movement of residents into Wyndham with the intent to reside here and the movement of residents from Wyndham with the intent to reside elsewhere. Migration is one of three significant components of population change in Australia alongside births and deaths. This profile covers three types of migration: between-state migration, within-state migration and overseas migration. For all migration streams this profile covers inward and outward flows. The exception is overseas migration for which only data on inward flows is available.
Identifying patterns in residential inward and outward migration is important for understanding Wyndham’s population. The arrival of new residents and the departure of others affect the city’s population and, potentially, the demand for services and infrastructure. With Wyndham’s growth rate and the volatility of migration, identifying recent trends in migration patterns may inform how migration is likely to impact the community, and whether specific groups are leaving or coming in to the city.
All data in this profile comes from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 and 2016, Census of Population and Housing unless otherwise stated.
A total of 58,174 people moved into Wyndham between 2011 and 2016 from locations overseas, other states within Australia, or from within Victoria. Over the same period, 24,217 people moved from Wyndham to other cities in Victoria or to other states in Australia. The number of people who left to go overseas is unknown. Migration to and from Wyndham intensified during the time period with almost a third (32.6%) of those who moved to Wyndham since 2011 doing so in 2015. Of all those who left since 2011, 41% did so in 2015.
The table below breaks down in and out flows for the 2011-2016 period. Of the nearly 60,000 people who moved into Wyndham, half moved from another location in Victoria. A further 36% arrived from overseas. The remaining 13% arrived from interstate. Conversely, just over 80% of people who moved from Wyndham to another location stayed within Victoria. Overall, the number of those who moved into Wyndham was around two and a half times larger than the number of those who moved out. In all cases in Table 1 there was net positive migration with the number of people moving in exceeding the number of people leaving.
Because other cities in Victoria represent the majority of those who came in and those who moved out, Table 2 below provides additional detail of cities within Victoria that Wyndham residents have moved to and from between 2011 and 2016. The table also indicates what proportion of these flows have taken place in 2015.
Migration flow breakdown by origin and destination, 2011-2016
As shown in the table below, Hobsons Bay and Brimbank, both adjacent to Wyndham, have been the largest origins for most of Wyndham’s arrivals in the past five years. Almost one third of the five-year inward migration flow is from those two municipalities. As for people leaving Wyndham, Hobsons Bay is still the most popular destination, followed closely by Melton and Greater Geelong. In addition, more people left Wyndham to go to Melton and Greater Geelong than vice versa.
Migration to and from other municipalities in Victoria
Identifying where those moving into Wyndham come from is one half of a two-part story. The other half is in Table 3 below – the destinations of choice in terms of Wyndham suburbs. Almost a third (29.6%) of those who have moved to Wyndham between 2011 and 2016 have moved to Point Cook. Another approximate third (32.5%) have moved to Tarneit and Truganina.
The table also shows the per cent of arrivals between 2011 and 2016 that took place in 2015. For most suburbs, around a third of arrivals took place in that year. In Werribee South and Laverton around half of the arrivals took place in 2015. Truganina and Williams Landing are suburbs where a large proportion of the population, more than 40%, consists of recent arrivals. Lastly, the table shows the proportion of migrants in the total population. The table below also indicates the current locations of residents who arrived from overseas between 2011 and 2016.
The map below highlights pockets in all suburbs where a large proportion of migrants from overseas now live. In all suburbs except Little River and Werribee South there are areas where up to half of all residents have arrived from overseas between 2011 and 2016.
Migration patterns by Wyndham suburbs
Current location of residents who arrived from overseas between 2011 and 20161
The median age of those who move in to Wyndham and those who move out is almost identical. Half of those who moved in were younger than 31.9 years old, and half of those who moved away from Wyndham were 32.7 years old. Some small differences exist between those moving in from overseas and from within Australia. The median age of those who arrived from overseas is 30.1 years, compared to 32.2 years for those arriving from within Australia
The median age and largest age groups of those moving into Wyndham differ by suburb as the table below indicates. Those moving into Point Cook and Williams Landing have higher median ages than those moving into other suburbs. The table below also indicates the age groups with the largest number of residents who moved in between 2011 and 2016. The results are consistent with Wyndham’s status as a growth area and point to young families moving in.
Median age and most common age groups by suburb, 2011-2016
Wyndham’s multicultural character is strongly reflected in the country of birth of residents who have moved in and out of Wyndham between 2011 and 2016. The table below summarises the data for the 20 largest countries of birth in terms of residents who moved in. The table also lists the number of residents who moved out of Wyndham over the same period and the net population growth from these migration flows. Lastly, the table indicates the number of people born in each country as a proportion of total in and outflows.
Australia, India, New Zealand, China and the Philippines are the most common countries of birth of residents who moved into Wyndham between 2011 and 2016. These five countries of birth account for more than two thirds (67.8%) of those who moved in between 2011 and 2016. As for people who moved away from Wyndham, the top five countries of birth are Australia, India, New Zealand, England and China, totalling 81.6%. Internal and external migration is almost the same for residents born in Australia. Almost all of Wyndham’s total net migration (98.7%) is the result of people who were born in countries other than Australia.
The patterns present in the country of birth flows are highly similar to the patterns observed in the language spoken at home and ancestry variables. These two variables are therefore not discussed in this profile.
Migration flows by country of birth, 2011-2016
As much as there is variation in where new residents were born, so too there will be variation in the suburbs those residents reside in. As the table below indicates, residents born in Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines have relatively low proportions of people moving into any one particular suburb.
Movement into Point Cook is broadly consistent with that suburb’s total population growth. Residents born in China, England and Myanmar tend to have moved to Point Cook. For example, more than half of residents born in China (56.1%) and around 49% of residents born in England who moved to Wyndham in the past five years moved into Point Cook. Almost three quarters of Myanmar-born residents who moved here in the past five years now reside in Werribee and Hoppers Crossing (74.4%).
Note also that there is a tendency for residents from the Indian subcontinent to move into Tarneit or Truganina. This is the case for 48.2% of Indian-born residents, 51.7% of Pakistan-born residents, 43.3% of Sri Lanka-born residents and 48.8% of Bangladesh-born residents. The first map below shows the location of Indian-born residents in Wyndham. The China-born population resides principally in Point Cook and Williams Landing as the second map below shows.
Most popular suburbs for recent arrivals by country of birth, 2011-2016
Percentage of the population that is born in India, 20162
Percentage of the population that speaks Mandarin at home, 20163
The migration flow can indicate whether Wyndham is attracting a highly skilled workforce, or whether such a workforce is predominantly leaving. Overall, as the graph below suggests, in all categories of educational attainment Wyndham has seen a net positive migration flow. Those who moved into Wyndham primarily had a high school education, a bachelor degree, or a postgraduate degree. Among those who left Wyndham between 2011 and 2016, the second-largest group was those who have a certificate level education.
Migration flow by educational attainment, Wyndham
While net migration was positive and Wyndham saw an increase in the number of people in all educational attainment levels, the educational attainment of those moving in was different from those moving out as the graph below shows.
Those with a bachelor or postgraduate degree formed a larger proportion of those leaving Wyndham (38.4%) than those coming in (26.8%). On the other hand, the relative number of people who moved to Wyndham and had a certificate level is larger than people who have a certificate level education and who moved elsewhere between 2011 and 2016. In other words, a larger proportion of those leaving Wyndham was highly educated.
Distribution of educational attainment by arrivals and departures, Wyndham, 2011-2016
There are differences in the educational attainment of people who moved to Wyndham from overseas, and those who came from areas across Australia. For example, a higher proportion of those who have moved to Wyndham from overseas have a bachelor degree, and a higher proportion have high school as their highest level of education. Conversely, a higher proportion of those who moved to Wyndham from another location in Australia have a certificate. The pattern of educational attainment among those who arrived from overseas likely reflects in part a skilled migration inflow (potentially including lower-skilled spouses), and in part a humanitarian migration inflow. The graph below shows the distribution of educational attainment by Wyndham arrivals from overseas and from elsewhere in Australia in 2011 and 2016.
Distribution of educational attainment by arrivals from overseas and from elsewhere in Australia, Wyndham, 2011-2016
As previously mentioned, there are substantial differences in educational attainment levels between those who move to and away from Wyndham. The graph below shows for ten selected municipalities that have high migration numbers (either to or from Wyndham) the percentage of people who have a bachelor degree or higher. In all ten municipalities, there are proportionally more people with a bachelor degree or higher who have left. This difference is largest in Hobsons Bay, which is directly adjacent to Wyndham in the direction of the Melbourne CBD.
Proportion of the population with a bachelor degree or higher overall arrivals and departures in cities with large migration flows with Wyndham, 2011-2016.
As shown is the table below, there appears to be a relationship between educational attainment and suburb of preference. The most attractive suburb for those with a bachelor degree or higher is Point Cook where almost a third of those with this level of education settled.
Most popular suburbs for arrivals by educational attainment, 2011-2016
As shown in the table below, in Point Cook, Wyndham Vale and Truganina, those with a bachelor degree or higher form the largest group of recent arrivals. In Hoppers Crossing, Little River, Werribee, Werribee South and Wyndham Vale, those with a secondary education form the largest group of recent arrivals.
Educational attainment of recent arrivals in Wyndham suburbs, 2011-2016
While educational attainment indicates the skills that residents have, employment outcomes form the other half of the equation. This section describes the migration patterns to and from Wyndham in terms of labour force status, industry of employment, occupation and income. All data refers to residents aged 15 years and over unless otherwise stated.
Across all labour force status categories, more people have moved to Wyndham than from Wyndham between 2011 and 2016. The two largest categories by far are those employed full-time and those not in the labour force as shown in the graph below. Almost half of those unemployed or not in the labour force arrived in 2015.
Migration flow by labour force status, Wyndham
The pattern of migration among those who moved to Wyndham and those who moved away is shown in the graph below. Over half of those who moved away from Wyndham were employed full-time (51.1%). In contrast, 42.7% of those moving to Wyndham are employed full-time. The opposite is true for those not in the labour force where a greater proportion moving in are not in the labour force (32.4%) compared with those moving out (24.7%).
Distribution of labour force status by arrivals and departures, Wyndham, 2011-2016
Labour force status also differs among those who have different places of origin. The graph below indicates that compared with those who arrived in Wyndham from another place in Australia, those who arrived from overseas are less likely to have full-time employment, more likely to have part-time employment or not be in the labour force.
Distribution of labour force status by arrivals from overseas and from elsewhere in Australia, Wyndham, 2011-2016
As previously mentioned, there are substantial differences in labour force status between those who move to and away from Wyndham. The figure below shows for 10 selected municipalities that have high migration numbers (either to or from Wyndham) the percentage of people who have full-time employment. Proportionally more full-time employed residents are moving to the nearby municipalities of Hobsons Bay, Maribyrnong, Melbourne, Melton and Moonee Valley. Proportionally more residents with full-time employment arrive in Wyndham from Glen Eira, Brimbank and Monash.
Proportion of the population that has full-time employment over all arrivals and departures in cities with large migration flows with Wyndham, 2011-2016
The migrant population in Wyndham’s suburbs is detailed in the table below. In Williams Landing, almost half of all those who moved there between 2011 and 2016 were employed full time. At the same time, William’s Landing also has the largest proportion of those not in the labour force. This is likely due to families where one parent works. Werribee, Hoppers Crossing and Little River have the lowest proportions of full-time employed recent arrivals and the highest proportion of unemployed recent arrivals.
Labour force status of recent arrivals in Wyndham suburbs, 2011-2016
In all industries of employment more residents have moved to Wyndham than away from Wyndham. As shown in the figure below, the one exception is the mining industry, where 90 residents left and 70 residents arrived. The three industries with the highest net migration were Transport, Postal and Warehousing, Health Care and Social Assistance, and Retail Trade.
Migration flow by industry, Wyndham
In several industries, proportionally more people have arrived in Wyndham between 2011 and 2016 than left. The graph below summarises the data for all industries. The Construction, Public Administration and Safety, and Education and Training industries have seen relatively large proportions of employees move away from Wyndham. Industries with proportionally large migration into Wyndham were the Transport, Postal and Warehousing, Administration and Support Services and Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services industries.
Distribution of industry of employment by arrivals and departures, Wyndham, 2011-2016
The key differences between those who arrive in Wyndham from overseas and those who arrive from other places in Australia is that a larger proportion of those who arrived from overseas work in service industries such as Professional Scientific and Technical Services, Accommodation and Food Services, and Administrative and Support Services. Those who arrived from another place in Australia are proportionally more skilled in the Public Administration and Safety, Financial and Insurance Services, and Construction industries. These substantial differences are likely due to Australia's visa program being a primarily skills-based program.
Distribution of industry of employment by arrivals from overseas and from elsewhere in Australia, Wyndham, 2011-2016
Migrants working in certain industries also exhibit preferences to reside in particular suburbs. As shown in the table below, the most common industries of working residents in Point Cook and Williams Landing are Professional Services, Health Care, and Retail. In many of the other suburbs, the Transport sector is one of the three most common industries.
Most common industries of employment of recent arrivals in Wyndham suburbs, 2011-2016
As shown in the graph below, more residents have moved to Wyndham than away from Wyndham for all occupations. The three industries with the highest net migration were Professionals, Machinery Operators and Drivers, and Labourers. While there were 4,419 Clerical and Administrative Workers who moved to Wyndham, around half that number also left Wyndham. A similar ratio exists among Professionals. As for Managers, net migration is about one third of all arrivals – while 3,261 Managers arrived in Wyndham, just over 2,000 left Wyndham over the same period.
Migration flow by occupation, Wyndham
The graph below shows for each occupation the proportion of total arrivals and departures. The figure points to the different characteristics of those who moved to Wyndham between 2011 and 2016 and those who moved away in the same period. A higher proportion of Managers, Professionals, Clerical and Administrative Workers and Technicians and Trades Workers moved away from Wyndham. The gap is particularly large when it comes to Managers. Machinery Operators and Drivers as well as Labourers are the occupations where proportionally more arrivals than departures took place.
Distribution of occupation by arrivals and departures, Wyndham, 2011-2016
The key differences between those who arrive in Wyndham from overseas and those who arrive from other places in Australia is that a larger proportion of those who arrived from overseas work as Professionals and Labourers. Residents who arrived from another place in Australia are more likely to work as Clerical and Administrative Workers, Managers and Technicians and Trades Workers.
Distribution of occupation by arrivals from overseas and from elsewhere in Australia, Wyndham, 2011-2016
Managers and Professionals form a substantially larger proportion of those who left Wyndham for other municipalities in Victoria than those who arrived in Wyndham between 2011 and 2016. The only exception among the ten largest migration arrival and departure locations is the City of Melbourne. As indicated in the Housing profile, more than 80% of housing in Melbourne consists of apartments. The movement of residents with Manager and Professional occupations from Melbourne to Wyndham is possibly in part driven by housing affordability, and in part by Melbourne residents having to move elsewhere if they do not want to live in an apartment. Migration of residents in these same occupations from Wyndham to other municipalities as the graph below indicates is likely driven by lifestyle choices.
Proportion of the population that are managers and professionals over all arrivals and departures in cities with large migration flows with Wyndham, 2011-2016
In all suburbs except Hoppers Crossing and Little River, the largest occupation of recent arrivals is Professionals. In Hoppers Crossing and Little River it is Technicians and Trades Workers. Point Cook and Williams Landing are the only suburbs where Managers are among the top three most common occupations of recent arrivals. In neither of these suburbs, as well as in Wyndham Vale, are there any blue-collar occupations in the top three.
Most common occupations of recent arrivals in Wyndham suburbs, 2011-2016
Differences in industries and occupations as identified above directly impact income levels among the migrant population. The table below highlights the median incomes (among those who had a positive income) and the proportion of residents with negative or nil income for the 2011-2016 and 2015-2016 periods. Key highlights are:
- Residents who moved away had a higher median income than those who arrived in Wyndham ($955 per week compared with $868 per week).
- Residents who moved to Wyndham from overseas had a lower median income than those who arrived from elsewhere in Australia ($749 per week compared with $915 per week).
- A larger proportion of residents who have moved to Wyndham had negative or nil income compared with those who moved away (18.1% compared with 9.2%).
- Almost one third of residents who moved to Wyndham had negative or nil income (31.4%) compared with just over a tenth of those who arrived here from elsewhere in Australia (10.7%).
- Over the one-year period of 2015-2016, median incomes were lower on all accounts, and the proportion of residents with negative or nil income was higher.
Income level details for recent arrivals, Wyndham
The graphs below detail the income distributions for migrant groups for the 2011-2016 period. The distribution of those who arrived in Wyndham and those who left indicates that in all income categories above the $1,000-$1,249 bracket the proportion of those who left is higher than the proportion of those who arrived. For most income groups from $1,000-$1,249 and below the opposite is true.
The higher median income levels for local arrivals compared to overseas arrivals does not arise from a particularly significant difference in high income levels. Rather, those who arrived from elsewhere in Australia have considerably higher proportions of residents in middle income groups, i.e. those between $800 and $1499 (37.1% versus 28.0%). More than half of residents who arrived from overseas have income levels below $800 (53.5%) compared with those who arrived from elsewhere in Australia (42.1%).
Distribution of income levels by arrivals and departures, Wyndham, 2011-2016
Distribution of income levels by arrivals from overseas and from elsewhere in Australia, Wyndham, 2011-2016
To identify whether there are patterns among those who have high and low incomes in relation to moving to and from other Victorian municipalities, the figures below show the proportion of residents who moved to and from the ten largest migration destinations and origins that have high and low incomes respectively. In determining high and low-income levels, the ABS metric of high income being the top 20% of earners and low income being the bottom 3% to 18% of earners applies. Applied to Wyndham, those who have high personal weekly income have an income of $1,250 or higher. Those with low income levels have weekly incomes between $150 and $399.
When looking at the ten largest municipalities when it comes to migration patterns, all except Glen Eira and Melbourne receive proportionally more high-income earners from Wyndham than they send. The difference between the proportion of those with high income levels who are leaving compared with those who are coming are highest in Greater Geelong, Hobsons Bay and Moreland. Looking at low income earners, most cities are proportionally larger origins for Wyndham residents than destinations. A higher proportion of low-income earners move to Brimbank, Greater Geelong and Hume than arrive from these locations. This indicates that Wyndham is proportionally losing high income earners to neighbouring municipalities while gaining a proportionally high amount of low-income earners. The move to Wyndham is likely motivated by housing affordability, while the move away from Wyndham is likely caused by wealth accumulation over time which in turn allows residents to move to municipalities for lifestyle reasons.
Proportion of the population that have high personal income over all arrivals and departures in cities with large migration flows with Wyndham, 2011-2016
Proportion of the population that have low personal income over all arrivals and departures in cities with large migration flows with Wyndham, 2011-2016
In alignment with education, industry and occupation, some suburbs attract recent arrivals with higher income levels. The table below shows that residents in Williams Landing and Point Cook have the highest median income levels among recent arrivals, while Hoppers Crossing and Werribee have the lowest median income levels.